中子技術 輪廓法 數值模擬

【深度科普(1/8)】什么是中子散射?中子散射的應用領域有哪些?

發布時間:2017-03-31

什么是中子?What is neutron?

    中子在自然界中廣泛存在。中子、質子和電子是材料世界的基礎。中子與質子在原子中心緊密結合。

    Neutrons are abundant throughout nature. Along with protons and electrons, they form the basic building blocks of the material world. Neutrons are tightly bound together with protons in the nucleus at the center of an atom.


如何獲取中子?How to generate neutron?

    獲取中子束流的方法通常有兩種,一種是利用反應堆內的鈾燃料發生核裂變反應從而產生中子,另一種是通過高能粒子加速器對粒子加速后轟擊金屬靶從而釋放出中子。

    The most common methods of making neutron beams for materials research are nuclear fission using uranium fuel in a reactor, or spallation, where a high-power particle accelerator fires a particle beam into a metal target to release neutrons.


什么是中子散射?What is neutron scattering?

    從上世紀80年代開始,加速器中子源逐漸引起了各個國家的投資興趣。英國ISIS散裂中子源就是世界上成功運行的典型代表。基于ISIS散裂源的相關技術,日本、美國和中國紛紛投資開始建造新的散裂中子源。

    Since the 1980s, accelerator-based neutron sources have become the global technology of choice for new investment. ISIS (The UK’s spallation neutron source near Oxford) is the world’s most successful neutron source of this type, and new spallation neutron sources in Japan, America and China are founded on ISIS instrumentation and technology.


中國散裂中子源CSNS鳥瞰圖

Bird’s-eye view of CSNS

圖片來源:中國科學院中國散裂中子源

(From: CSNS, CAS) 


    由中國科學院、廣東省和東莞市共同投資約23億元人民幣建設的,位于廣東省東莞市的中國散裂中子源是我國“十一五”期間重點建設的十二個大科學裝置之首。計劃于2018年建成,建成后將成為中國最大的科學裝置之一,躋身世界四大散裂中子源行列。

    The Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), located in Dongguan, Guangdong, is the largest national scientific and technological infrastructure of the 12 major large-scale scientific facilities in 11th Five Year Plan period, co-invested(2.3 billion RMB) by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the municipal governments of Guangdong province and Dongguan city. Its construction is expected to be accomplished in 2018. Upon its accomplishment, it will be the first spallation neutron source amongst the developing countries, and one of the four spallation neutron sources in the world.

    為充分利用中國散裂中子源資源,拓展中國散裂中子源在材料與裝備制造領域的應用與研究,東莞材料基因高等理工研究院(CEAM),將建設中國第一臺利用散裂中子的工程材料衍射譜儀以及相關的配套科研設施,發展先進材料科學與應力工程產業。

    In order to take full advantage of the CSNS and to broaden its applications to the research of advanced materials and high-end equipment manufacturing, the Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials(CEAM) is formed to build the China's first pulsed neutron diffractometer for engineering materials, as well as other supplementary scientific facilities. CEAM is aimed for the development of advanced materials and the application of stress engineering in high-end manufacturing.


中子散射應用領域有哪些?The applications of neutron scattering

    在過去的40多年以來,科學家門通過高強中子束流,利用中子與物質之間獨特的交互響應,在原子尺度上對材料進行了深入研究,不斷地刷新了人們對材料物理化學性能的認知水平。中子散射技術最初主要應用在物理學研究方面,目前已逐步擴展到工業、醫療、考古、生物等各個領域。散裂中子源為眾多學科前沿領域的研究提供了一種最先進的、不可替代的研究工具。在當今社會最為關心的能源、環境、生物、新材料和國防等諸多領域有著廣泛的應用。

    With the availability of intense neutron beams over the past 40 years, the unique interaction of neutrons with matter has been used for materials research to understand the physical and chemical properties of matter at the atomic scale. From the early days as a technique rooted in physics, the science now making use of neutron scattering has grown to cover everything from engineering to medicine, archaeology to zoology.



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