什么是中子？What is neutron？
Neutrons are abundant throughout nature. Along with protons and electrons, they form the basic building blocks of the material world. Neutrons are tightly bound together with protons in the nucleus at the center of an atom.
如何獲取中子？How to generate neutron？
The most common methods of making neutron beams for materials research are nuclear fission using uranium fuel in a reactor, or spallation, where a high-power particle accelerator fires a particle beam into a metal target to release neutrons.
什么是中子散射？What is neutron scattering？
Since the 1980s, accelerator-based neutron sources have become the global technology of choice for new investment. ISIS (The UK’s spallation neutron source near Oxford) is the world’s most successful neutron source of this type, and new spallation neutron sources in Japan, America and China are founded on ISIS instrumentation and technology.
Bird’s-eye view of CSNS
(From: CSNS, CAS)
The Chinese Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS), located in Dongguan, Guangdong, is the largest national scientific and technological infrastructure of the 12 major large-scale scientific facilities in 11th Five Year Plan period, co-invested(2.3 billion RMB) by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the municipal governments of Guangdong province and Dongguan city. Its construction is expected to be accomplished in 2018. Upon its accomplishment, it will be the first spallation neutron source amongst the developing countries, and one of the four spallation neutron sources in the world.
In order to take full advantage of the CSNS and to broaden its applications to the research of advanced materials and high-end equipment manufacturing, the Centre of Excellence for Advanced Materials(CEAM) is formed to build the China's first pulsed neutron diffractometer for engineering materials, as well as other supplementary scientific facilities. CEAM is aimed for the development of advanced materials and the application of stress engineering in high-end manufacturing.
中子散射應用領域有哪些？The applications of neutron scattering
With the availability of intense neutron beams over the past 40 years, the unique interaction of neutrons with matter has been used for materials research to understand the physical and chemical properties of matter at the atomic scale. From the early days as a technique rooted in physics, the science now making use of neutron scattering has grown to cover everything from engineering to medicine, archaeology to zoology.