中子技術 輪廓法 數值模擬

【深度科普(4/8)】中子散射技術的應用—電子信息

發布時間:2017-04-28


    在過去50年里,數據的存儲與處理呈現爆發式增長,存儲設備能夠容納數百G歌曲、圖片和文字,同時他們的體積卻在不斷地縮小。中子散射技術能夠幫助我們提高手機電子組件的性能,控制生物傳感器的品質。使用中子散射技術亦可在原子尺度上分布磁性,此獨特的能力正被用于在更小的面積上存儲更多的數據,制造超靈敏數據讀取感應器、開發新型計算機內存。除此之外,英國散裂中子源還在協助航空公司處理宇宙輻射對航空器上微型芯片的影響。

    Over the past 50 years, the amount of information stored and processed has witnessed explosive growth, allowing hundreds of gigabytes of songs, pictures and words to be recorded onto devices which are continually shrinking in size. Neutron scattering techniques can help us improve the performance of the electronic components inside mobile phones and control the quality of biosensors. The unique ability of neutron scattering to map out magnetism at the atomic scale is being used to pack more gigabytes into smaller areas, create ultra-sensitive sensors to read back the data, and develop new types of computer memory. Besides, ISIS is helping aerospace companies to manage the effects of cosmic radiation on microchips flown in aircraft.


01
手機陶瓷

Mobile phone

ceramics


    陶瓷天線通常安裝在基站和手機中,用于傳遞通訊信號,每部手機都通過細小的陶瓷天線收發各自特定的工作頻率。隨著客戶需求的增加和手機設計的不斷進化,市場對于提高陶瓷零件性能和降低其成本的需求同時增加。減少功率耗損就是其中重要的一環,這就要求在生產過程中必須嚴格保證質量。

    The ceramic antennas assembled in base stations and mobile handsets are used for delivering the singles. Every mobile phone uses the ceramic antennas to transmit their dedicated operating frequencies. Consumer demand and evolving design of mobile phones has created a need to improve performance and lower the costs of these ceramic components. This includes reducing their power loss, which makes quality assurance essential during manufacture.

 

    手機內部構件的運行效果與所用材料的性能緊密相連。幸運的是,中子散射技術能夠幫助生產商對所用材料的性能提出精準的要求。英國Powerwave公司在中子散射設施中對一個關鍵性的生產環節進行了原位實驗:把陶瓷零件加熱至1000°C以上。該項研究測出了不同電性能的材料,在相同的工藝條件下,其原子層面上所呈現出的差別。這種檢驗方式比原先的“試錯”模式更高效,幫助制造商為這些部件制定了正確的性能指標。

    The performance of components inside mobile phones is closely related to material properties. Neutron scattering can help manufacturers get the right specification. Wireless solutions company Powerwave UK has re-created a critical manufacturing stage, inside a neutrons cattering facility where the ceramic components are heated to over 1000°C. The research was able to identify atomic-scale differences between materials processed under identical conditions, but having different electrical properties. This testing was significantly more efficient than previoustrial-and-error methods, and has aided the manufacture of these components to the right specification. 


    中子散射實驗為我們了解復雜陶瓷材料的結構提供了必要數據。

—— David Iddles

英國Powerwave公司

    Neutron scattering experiments generated the data necessary to understand the structure of these complex ceramic materials.

—— David Iddles

Powerwave UK


02
傳染病感染器

Infection

sensor


    監測生物系統的傳感器由生物元素和電子設備組成。診斷傳染性疾病時,生物傳感器必須靈敏、快速辨別出是病毒性感染或細菌性感染。例如腦膜炎有細菌性腦膜炎和病毒性腦膜炎兩種,如果診斷錯誤,對于病人結果將是致命的。

    Sensors to monitor living systems are made up of a mix of biological elements and electronics. When diagnosing infectious diseases, these biosensors must be sensitive and quick enough to distinguish between a virus and a bacterial infection. For example, meningitis comes in bacterial or viral forms and can be fatal if diagnosed incorrectly.


    中子散射實驗有助于控制生物傳感器的質量控制。從Newcastle大學分離出來的Orla蛋白技術公司,為開發新一代生物傳感器的大公司生產特制的蛋白表面。作為如今唯一可行的一項技術,中子散射使Orla公司能夠檢測比人類頭發絲還要薄10000倍的生物工程表面的質量。Orla的生物傳感器擁有高性能的蛋白表面:一個能夠檢測出樣品中特性指示分子的隱形生物工程膜。該生物工程膜非常非常的薄,即使將30000張這樣的生物工程膜相疊在一起也才只有一張紙的厚度。中子散射技術為確保蛋白表面生產的可靠性提供了必要的信息。

    Biosensor quality control gets green light from neutron scattering experiments. Orla Protein Technologies, a spin-out from Newcastle University, makes bespoke protein surfaces for large companies developing the next generation of biosensors. Neutron scattering is the only technique that enables Orla to test the quality of its bio-engineered surfaces at scales 10,000 times smaller than a human hair. Orla’s biosensors have a high-performance protein surface, an invisible engineered biological film that detects the tell-tale molecules in a sample. This engineered biological film is so thin that a stack of 30,000 would only be as thick as a sheet of paper. Neutron scattering gives the information necessary to ensure that the protein surfaces are reliable for manufacturing.


    借助中子散射技術,我們可以在反應中引入符號標記分子,幫助我們了解每個部件的具體位置。這些成果堅定了客戶對我們的信任,也對我們的業務成敗至關重要。

—— Jeremy Lakey教授

Orla蛋白技術公司

    With neutron scattering we can introduce label molecules in reactions to help us tell where each component part is. These results reassure our customers and are essential for the success of our business.

—— Professor Jeremy Lakey

Orla Protein Technologies

03
磁電子學

Magnetic

electronics




    傳統電子設備依賴于印刷在硅片上微型電路中的運動電子所產生的電流。一項名為“自旋電子學”(或磁電子)的新興技術同時利用電子的磁性開發了一個功能強大的新類型部件,此技術在信息、汽車和醫療領域有諸多的應用潛力。

    Conventional electronics relies on electrical currents caused by moving electrons around minute circuits etched on silicon. An emerging technology called ‘spintronics’ uses the magnetic properties of electrons at the same time to create a powerful new class of components. This technology has potential for a variety of applications in IT, motoring and healthcare.

 

    最廣泛使用的自旋電子部件就是臺式電腦和手提電腦中的硬盤驅動器的讀頭(讀卡器)。自旋電子讀頭能夠感應只有幾個原子厚度層的磁性變化,與過去的技術相比,它能讀取更小的數據單元。這個進步使得數據存儲密度在過去5年中提高了40倍。

    The most widely used spintronic device is found in the read-head of magnetic hard-disk drives used inside desktop and laptop computers. The spintronic read-head senses changes in the magnetism of layers only a few atoms thick allowing it to read smaller data bits than older technology. This has given a 40-fold increase in data-storage density in the last five years.

 

然而,大多數最有希望被工業界用于未來器件的材料,卻只能在諸如極低溫或強磁場這類極端環境下才能工作。目的是懂得這些新材料的復雜物理特性,從而使它們在室溫條件下也能工作。許多英國大學和企業正在攻克這個難題,希望通過對自旋電子材料的化學和電磁結構的層層了解,把它們的基本物理特性與實際表現行為聯系起來。中子散射技術對開辟自旋電子學強有力的新一代應用至關重要。

But many of the most promising materials, which industry hopes to deploy in future devices, only work under extreme conditions such as very low temperatures or large magnetic fields. The aim is to understand the complex physics of these new materials to get them to work at room temperature. A number of UK universities and companies are attacking the problem to get a layer-by-layer understanding of the chemical and magnetic structure to connect the fundamental physics of spintronic materials with their actual behaviour. Neutron scattering is critical in exploiting spintronics for a powerful new generation of applications.



    我們的目的是要了解這些新材料的復雜物理特性,以并使它們在室溫環境下工作。中子散射技術對開辟自旋電子學強有力的新一代應用至關重要。

—— Sean Langridge教授

STFC ISIS

    Our aim is to understand the complex physics of these new materials to get them to work at room temperature. Neutron scattering is critical in exploiting spintronics for a powerful new generation of applications.

—— Professor Sean Langridge

STFC ISIS


04
中子雨

Neutron

rain

 


    

    宇宙射線撞擊地球大氣層產生了高能中子雨,并降落在地球上。在飛機的正常飛行高9000-10000米,每隔幾秒鐘計算機芯片就可能被一個中子擊中,干擾飛機上的電子設備而引起故障,輕則清除電子設備內存,重則對電子設備造成損壞。

    Cosmic rays hitting the earth’s atmosphere generate showers of high energy neutrons that rain down on earth. At normal aircraft flying altitudes of 9,000 to 10,000 meters, a silicon chip can be struck by a neutron every few seconds disrupting aircraft electronics which can cause problems ranging from wiping a device’s memory to damaging the electronics.

 

    BAE,Aero EngineControls,QinetiQ 和 MBDA等航空業巨頭紛紛借助中子技術對電子元件進行測試,以控制宇宙射線的輻射作用。英國散裂中子源正在協助航空公司處理宇宙輻射對航空器上微型芯片的影響,英國散裂中子源的專用實驗設備能夠在一小時內模擬數百年設備可接受到的中子束。

    Using neutrons, leading aerospace companies such as BAE, Aero Engine Controls, QinetiQ and MBDA are able to test components and manage the effects of cosmic radiation. ISIS is helping them to manage the effects of cosmic radiation on microchips flown in aircraft. Dedicated testing facilities at ISIS can replicate hundreds of years of flying time in one hour of testing. 

 

    隨著電子芯片體積的縮小,中子輻照效應對地面設備的影響也日益顯著,如在交通運輸、通訊、醫藥和計算機系統等其他領域。

    As the dimensions of electronic chip components continue to shrink, neutron effects are also being seen at ground-level in other areas such as transport, communications, medicine, and computing systems.




ISIS是世界上僅有的幾個能夠產生出足夠量度的高能中子,進行加速實驗的設施之一。ISIS的新設備-Chipir將會是全世界最好的檢查設備。

——  Andrew Chugg

MBDA

ISIS is one of few facilities in the world capable of producing enough very high energy neutrons to perform accelerated testing. The new Chipir instrument at ISIS will be the best screening facility in the world.

——  Andrew Chugg

MBDA








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